Presidential Welcome and Address

Séamus Mac Mathúna
author01 02 September 2016 Ulster University

Opening Remarks

Jadranka Gvozdanovic
author24 02 September 2016 Heidelberg University

‘Три сестрицы под окном’ as Gaeilge: Scéal Rí na Gréige by S. Cassidy

Maxim Fomin
author03 03 September 2016 Ulster University

PSl. *plugъ < WGmc. *plōgu-/*plōga- < Celt.?

Vaclav Blažek
author04 02 September 2016 MUB

Lexicalization Paths in Action Nouns in Irish

Maria Bloch-Trojnar
author47 02 September 2016 CUL

Word-based Morphology and Irish Initial Mutations

Magdalena Chudak
author0 02 September 2016 CUL

Intertextual Relations in the Ulster Cycle

Oksana Dereza
author33 03 September 2016 HSE, Moscow

Woman in Irish penitentials

Vera Potopaeva
author43 03 September 2016 Moscow

Multiple versions of Breuddwyd Pawl as a Source to Study the Work of Welsh Translators

Elena Parina
author01 03 September 2016 Philipps-Universität Marburg

Opportunities Seized: From Tolstóigh to Pelévin

Mark Ó Fionnáin
author48 02 September 2016 CUL

Neologisms in Revived Manx Gaelic

George Broderick
author49 02 September 2016 Heidelberg University

Progress on Irish Idiomatic Constructions

Victor Bayda
author04 03 September 2016 MSU

Writing Britain’s Celtic History in the 19th Century: Narrative Motifs of Folk Traditions used as Historical Evidence by Sir John Rhŷs

Angelika Rüdiger
author38 03 September 2016 Bangor University

An Acoustic Study of Welsh Rhotics

Sylwestr Jaworski and Sabine Asmus
author41 03 September 2016 Szczecin - Leipzig

Which linguistic models for Brittany?

Gary German
author25 02 September 2016 UBO, Brest

Etymological Orthography for Breton: A Core Standard for the Accurate Representation, with Minimal Differences, of Breton Dialects

Steve Hewitt
author26 02 September 2016 UNESCO

Linguistic Geography of Breton

Tanguy Solliec
author46 02 September 2016 UBO, Brest

Word Order in Breton and Lower Sorbian

Till Vodt
author0 02 September 2016 Leipzig University

The Salmon Episodes in Tochmarc Moméra and Macgnímartha Finn: the Myths that “think themselves in relation to each other”

Ksenia Kudenko
author44 02 September 2016 Ulster University

Syntactical Uses of Welsh yn + vn

Ricarda Scherschel
author50 03 September 2016 Philipps-Universität Marburg

Sociolinguistics of Coal-mining Areas in Wales, Lusatia and Donbass

Ielyzaveta Stefanova
author45 03 September 2016 Leipzig University

Translations into Modern Breton: a step towards a new written standard

Anna Muradova
author16 03 September 2016 Institute for Linguistics, Moscow
Celto-Slavica 8

Presidential Welcome and Address

author01 S. Mac Mathúna 02 September 2016 Ulster University

Text to follow.

Celto-Slavica 8

Opening Remarks

author24 J. Gvozdanovic 02 September 2016 Heidelberg University

Text to follow

Celto-Slavica 8

‘Три сестрицы под окном’ as Gaeilge: Scéal Rí na Gréige by S. Cassidy

author03 M. Fomin 03 September 2016 Ulster University

Working on the new edition of Teelin tales collected by Prof. Lüdwig Mühlhausen from the local storyteller Séamus Cassidy in October 1937 that are currently kept in the Special Collections of the University of Tübingen Library, I came across a previously unpublished Modern Irish version of an international fairy tale 'The Story of Two Sisters Who Were Jealous of Their Younger Sister'.

Mühlhausen believed it became known to the storyteller via a printed collection of fairy tales known as The Arabian Nights Entertainments. Known as the The Book of the Thousand Nights and One Night, prior to the English editions of Edward Lane (1839-41), and Richard Francis Burton (1887), the collection was previously published in French by Antoine Galland between 1704-1717 and in German by August Ernst Zinserling who drew upon the French retelling of the collection by Joseph von Hammer (1823-1824).

I will look at the Irish version of the tale, compare it with what I believe to be its antecedents in other European languages, incidentally making references to other versions of the tale found in Ireland and will make some proposals as to how this tale could have found its way to Donegal.

Celto-Slavica 8

The North-eastern Border of the Celtic World

author04 V. Blažek 02 September 2016 Masaryk University, Brno

In the contribution the primary source of Slavic *plugъ and West Germanic *plōgu-/*plōga- "plough" is discussed. The old idea of the Celtic origin leading to Cis-Alpine Gaulish *plou̯u- "plough" and *plou̯u-ambio-rātī "plough on both wheels" is analyzed in detail.

The u-stem *plou̯u- is derivable from the Celtic verb *ku̯leu̯-, continuing in Old Irish cloïd "turns (back), repels; turns the edge (of weapons); overthrows, destroys; changes", related to Greek πολεύω "I turn or go about" (intr.); "turn up the soil with the plough" (tr.) rec. *ku̯ol-eu̯-i̯ō, besides Greek. πολέω "I go about, range over, haunt; turn up the earth with plough, plough"; Latin colere "to live in, inhabit; till, cultivate, farm (land); grow, cultivate (fruit, crops)".

The Cis-Alpine Gaulish *plou̯u-, originally probably "turning {earth}", was during first centuries CE romanized into plōvum, in the end of the 6th cent. borrowed by Langobards and around 600 spread in Bavaria, where it was adopted in the form *plōgu-/*plōga- in agreement with Verner’s law. This form was spread to the north to other West Germanic tribal dialects during the 7th century and to the east, along the stream of the Danube to the Caranthanian and Pannonian Slavs which distributed the term to more distant Slavic dialects, all probably during the 7th-8th cent.

Celto-Slavica 8

Lexicalization Paths in Action Nouns in Irish

author47 M. Bloch-Trojnar 02 September 2016 Catholic University of Lublin

The linguistic debate of nominalizations focuses on nouns with actional semantics, whereas the result or referential nominals are largely an uncharted area.

In the process of lexicalization, the meanings of nominals drift away from the core actional reading, and come to denote ‘something material connected with the verbal idea (agent, instrument, belongings, place or the like)’ (Marchand 1969, 303). According to Kastovsky (1986, 596) additional readings of derived nominals develop in accordance with the following hierarchy: ‘Action/Fact Result Locative Instrument Agent’. Malicka-Kleparska (1988) views lexicalization as the absorption or incorporation into the meaning of a given nominalization of the thematic role which is most object-like, i.e. Experienced, Causer, Instrument, Location, Source, Goal and, if none of these is available, that of Theme. Recently, we have witnessed the rise of more elaborate models of semantic interpretation, which tackle the vagueness of the theta role system, such as for example Pustejovsky’s (1995) Generative Lexicon or Lieber’s (2004) decompositional lexical semantics.

The machinery of both these models will be deployed with a view to establishing the range of non-eventive semantic interpretations displayed by verbal nouns in Irish.

Celto-Slavica 8

Word-based Morphology and Irish Initial Mutations

author0 M. Chudak 02 September 2016 Catholic University of Lublin

In the word-based model of morphology (Bochner 1993, Singh and Ford 2003) the structure of the lexicon emerges from the relationships established between the whole words the speaker encountered so far.

The alteration of initials segments in Irish is a phenomenon whereby dialectal variants of certain words differ only in the initial segment, e.g. beach/meach ‘bee’. This variation is often perceived as a side-effect of the pervasive system of initial mutations. The word-based framework proves advantageous in accounting for initial mutations because it offers a neat explanation of how the error-based alteration of initial segments occurs.

Celto-Slavica 8

Intertextual Relations in the Ulster Cycle

author33 O. Dereza 03 September 2016 High School of Economics, Moscow

This paper discusses a new statistical approach to medieval Irish narrative analysis. Natural Language Processing methods, such as topic modelling, cluster analysis, tf-idf etc. allow us to look at the classical texts from a different angle and visualize the distribution of colours in Táin Bó Cúailnge, classify characters according to their actions or build a similarity graph for several texts. .

My research focuses on three major things: developing language-specific instruments for processing Old Irish texts, outlining tasks that can be solved with these instruments and visualizing the results

Celto-Slavica 8

The Image of a Woman on the basis of the Irish Penitentials

author43 Vera Potopaeva 03 September 2016 Moscow State University

Study of the Old Irish secular law could lead us to the conclusion, that the medieval Irish women were rather legally independent. They could demand a divorce, and even in some cases inherit land. They were also sexually independent: sometimes Irish women even lived with men or occasionally slept with them without any legal approval.

But this sinful way of life contradicted the Christian ideals and morals. Therefore in the canon law we can find an absolutely opposite idea of the perfect women’s behavior. This report is devoted to the image of the female sinners and the rights and responsibilities of women on the basis of the Irish penitential literature.

Celto-Slavica 8

Multiple Versions of Breuddwyd Pawl as a Source to Study the Work of Welsh Translators

author01 Elena Parina 03 September 2016 Philipps-Universität Marburg

In the study of Welsh translational texts instances of multiple translations are not rare (cf. Sims-Williams 2011, Sims-Williams in print on Historia Regum Brittaniae). Another example are Welsh versions of Visio Sancti Pauli. According to Williams 1962 three independent translations of the Latin text exist. Given the high fluidity degree of the Latin text (cf. Dwyer 2004, Jiroušková 2006) it is not surprising that these three versions have different sources.

The texts in the Book of the Anchorite of Llanddewi Brefi/ Peniarth 3/ Peniarth 14/ Peniarth 15/ Peniarth 27 and in Llanstephan 4 are based on a Latin text of Silverstein’s redaction IV (Williams 1962: 123), their sources belonging to different subgroups between this redaction, as the paper will show. Texts in Shrewsbury 11/ Peniarth 32/ (Y Llyfr Teg)/ Peniarth 50 (Y Cwta Cyfarwydd)/ NLW MS. 5267/ Peniarth 267 are based on Silverstein’s redaction I. This paper will show how a comparison between multiple translations, even under consideration of slightly differing sources, can provide us with new insights into the work of Welsh translators.

Celto-Slavica 8

Opportunities Seized: From Tolstóigh to Pelévin

author48 M. Ó Fionnáin 03 September 2016 Catholic University of Lublin

From the start of the Gaelic Revival in the 1890s to the present day, various Russian authors have appeared in Irish in translation, from Tolstoy, Chekhov and Pushkin in the early days to Kharms and Pelevin in more recent times. Although it is unlikely that many of those who have translated into Irish were doing so from the original Russian, this was indeed the case in several instances.

The aim of this paper is to thus take a look at several of these translations from Russian in more detail, namely some of those done by Liam Ó Rinn, Maighréad Nic Mhaicín, an tAthair Gearóid Ó Nualláin and, in more modern times, by the author of this paper, and to examine the translators’ approach to the texts, in order to see how they made use of them to present their Irish-language reader with diverse cultural, linguistic or literary information.

From the point of view of culture, this paper will also look at how they set about the task of rewriting Russian names and nouns in their Irish texts, looking at whether they relied on English forms, or attempted to rewrite them in Irish according to its strict orthographic rules. This is in contrast to the English – and other – translations of the same eras, which tended to ignore such opportunities to expand their readers’ knowledge of Russia and the Russians and about which, in relation to one recent translation, one reviewer said it was “a missed opportunity”.

Celto-Slavica 8

Neologisms in Revived Manx Gaelic

author49 G. Broderick 02 September 2016 Heidelberg University

The first known scientific collection of Manx Gaelic material was made in 1703-04 by Edward Lhuyd, Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, or his agent, of a number of Manx Gaelic lexical items as part of a greater survey of the Insular Celtic languages, etc., ninety-five of which were published in his Archaeologia Britannica of 1707. In 1977 a further thousand or so of such items were discovered by Dafydd Ifans of the Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, in the Mysevin Collection of manuscripts formed from the papers of Welsh grammarian and lexicographer William Owen[-Pughe] (1759-1835). They were transcribed by Ifans and edited with full commentary by Robert L. Thomson (cf. Ifans and Thomson 1979-80). Lhuyd's Manx word-list is arranged under various sections according to topic, e.g. trees, fish, domestic animals, etc., using John Ray's Dictionariolum as the basis of the questionnaire

In order to give as full a picture as possible, all known native Manx speakers recorded from 1909 to 1983 are hereby listed, with details of the collectors and their comments on the informants, as well as the material elicited by them. This serves as a continuum to those native Manx speakers recorded by Prof. John Rhŷs (1886-1893) (qv), thus completing the story.

Celto-Slavica 8

Progress on Irish Idiomatic Constructions

author04 Victor Bayda 02 September 2016 Moscow State University

Irish possesses a large inventory of combinations of a light verb, a noun and a preposition. Construction grammar accounts for such combinations (schematic idioms) as having their own semantics.

The positive nature of states in constructions like bain sult as ‘enjoy, lit. extract enjoyment out of’ can be attributed to conventionalisation in [bain + noun + as] of the pragmatic inference of situations like bain clocha as sliabh ‘mine stone from a mountain’ where stone is “extracted” for some benefit. This also accounts for the indefiniteness of nouns where the situation is beneficial for the subject. Definiteness of nouns denoting a feature that is removed from the set of features of an object can be explained as a conventionalisation of a pragmatic inference of situations like bain an corc as an mbuidéal ‘take out the cork out of the bottle’ where the absence of the object is focused.

A fully lexical verb tabhair ‘give’ combines with do ‘to’ and a beneficiary object. As a light verb it can also make use of ar ‘on’ with the prepositional object being the theme, a semantic role that is only assigned by ar when it comes with tabhair and certain nouns. This makes tabhair, ar and these nouns a unit with its own semantics. Further cases of schematic idioms demonstrate the advantages of a constructionalist approach to Irish grammar and lexicon.

Celto-Slavica 8

Writing Britain’s Celtic History in the 19th century: Narrative Motifs of Folk Traditions used as Historical Evidence by Sir John Rhŷs

author38 Angelika H. Rüdiger 03 September 2016 Bangor University

Sir John Rhŷs was the first professor for Celtic studies in Oxford and was also a renowned collector of Welsh folklore. This paper explores how Rhŷs used tales and narrative motifs from folklore, especially those related to traditions of the Tylwyth Teg, the Welsh fairies, to construct and support his idea of Britain’s pre-history. In this context, it will be shown how he employed the contemporary ideas based on social Darwinism, such as the development of social organization according to Bachofen, Morgan and Engels and the development of religion according to Frazer.

Celto-Slavica 8

Acquisition of Distorted Language as an Obstacle to Cultural Continuity

author41 S. Jaworski and S. Asmus 03 September 2016 Szczecin University - Universität Leipzig

This a recent acoustic study of rhotic sounds of Modern Welsh. Two distinct rhotic phonemes, represented by the [r] and [rh], are posited for Modern Welsh. Both are classified as apical trills distinguished by the feature [Aspirated]. As in many other languages, the Welsh rhotics manifest a trend towards phonetic change that results in a considerable amount of variation with respect to the manner of articulation. This tendency has been confirmed by our analysis of 23 speakers both from North and South Wales. The study revealed that only 21% of the tokens were classified as aspirated trills. The other rhotics are replaced with various fortis fricatives, or with the glottal [h]. In this respect, the Welsh aspirated rhotic resembles the Slavic palatalised /rʲ/ which has been replaced with the fricative /ʒ/ in Polish.

Celto-Slavica 8

Which linguistic models for Brittany?

author25 Gary German 02 September 2016 University of Western Brittany, Brest

In attempting to safeguard a severely threatened language such as Breton (which really means safeguarding the threatened language communities and the local economies which sustain them), are we to promote the traditionally transmitted language varieties spoken naturally by the quasi totality of the population, or do we promote the new standardized, unified language now supported and spoken by much of the media, the majority of school teachers and young learners of the language?

The debate could perhaps be summarized as follows: Which linguistic model is best suited to encouraging the preservation of the Breton language: a “bottom-up” approach (advocating the renewed support for the dialectal but sociolinguistically stigmatized varieties of language spoken by over 200,000 traditional speakers) or a “top-down” approach (endorsing a standard language conceived and elaborated by an intellectual elite which offers the advantage of uniformity and thus enhanced mutual comprehension among learners, but which is often frowned upon and viewed as unnatural by traditional speakers)? These questions are certainly not new.

Taking into consideration the sociolinguistic and socioeconomic motivations of older speakers who have for the most part rejected their native dialects in favour of French, the impetus is clearly on the side of those who are adopting the new Breton norm, even though these speakers are almost exclusively learners with French as their native language. The debate over what constitutes acceptable Breton is still raging today in Brittany and is so intense and passionate at times that a balanced discussion among specialists can be difficult. Having said this, the case of Breton is not an isolated one and the lessons gleaned here could benefit other threatened-language communities worldwide.

Celto-Slavica 8

Etymological Orthography for Breton: A Core Standard for the Accurate Representation, with Minimal Differences, of Breton Dialects

author26 S. Hewitt 03 September 2016 UNESCO

There are in principle three basic positions from which to design an orthography for a language such as Breton, with a significant degree of dialectal fragmentation.

(1) Monodialectal: choose a representative dialect, especially if there is one that has prestige among speakers of other dialects, and write that phonetically.

(2) Multidialectal: renounce attempting to achieve a single written standard, and write the main dialects with separate standards.

(3) Supradialectal: use supradialectal orthographical conventions from which the main dialectal variants can be regularly derived.

Breton has traditionally applied a combination of the monodialectal and multidialectal (or at least bidialectal) approaches: the old KLT standard (1908-1911) was based mainly on Leon/Léon (L) in the northwest (NW), and did not effectively cater to the majority “innovating” dialects of Treger (T) in the northeast (NE) or Kerne/Cornouaille (K) in the centre (C) and southwest (SW); this meant that there was perforce a separate Gwened/Vannes (G) (SE) standard for that very different dialect.

The ZH orthography (Peurunvan ‘Fully united’; 1941; 85% of users) clumsily attempted an artificial fusion of KLT and G, which still took little account of K or T. The OU (Orthographe universitaire; 1956; 10-12% of users) went back to the KLT and G situation, with somewhat enhanced parallel standards for both, but likewise, no real account was taken of K or T.

The ID orthography (Interdialectale/ Etrerannyezhel; 1975; 3-5% of users) was the first to attempt a truly supradialectal solution, but unfortunately, for reasons of political antagonism, never won over significant numbers of users. This means that the two most widely-used orthographies, ZH and OU, are difficult for most native speakers to acquire as they do not come close to reflecting majority usage. Furthermore, ZH tends to lead to bad pronunciation by learners. Finally, no orthography has any real currency: only 0.2%-0.3% of native speakers of Breton could write a simple personal letter in Breton; the total numbers of pupils in Breton-language education (including both all-Breton immersion and bilingual) remains under 2% of schoolchildren in Brittany. Learners now account for 95% of people literate in Breton, even though there are 10-20 times as many traditional native speakers as learners. Most learners are not able to communicate easily (beyond standard greetings, etc.) with native speakers.

Building on ID, I have developed a personal E (etymological) orthography which includes several additional powerful supradialectal conventions.

Celto-Slavica 8

Linguistic Geography of Breton

author46 T. Solliec 02 September 2016 University of Western Brittany, Brest

Local variation in Breton is a well known feature but aggregate analyses on this topic are still rare. A dialectometric approach, i.e. a computational method for comparing data from the different locations of a linguistic atlas, applied to the Nouvel Atlas Linguistique de la Basse-Bretagne (Le Dû 2001) but restrained to a small area at the center of the Lower-Brittany has identified a few phenomena involved in linguistic variation and has quantified their importance. We would like to discuss these results in the light of the frequency of these facts for each site.

This approach is an opportunity to associate basic corpus approach to linguistic geography for a better understanding of linguistic variation.

Celto-Slavica 8

Word Order in Breton and Lower Sorbian

author0 T. Vodt 02 September 2016 Leipzig University

Word order belongs to the structural features of a language which become intensively affected by language contact (Thomason 2001). As minority languages are particularly exposed to the influence of their dominating languages, they are supposed to feature especially high impact on their word order. This paper aims to give evidence for this assumption focussing on the European minority languages Lower Sorbian and Breton both of which face language death today.

In the case of Breton, a lot of attempts were made to determine its historically grown word order. Proposals in this regard range from VSO (Timm 1989) over V2 (Schafer 1995) to SVO (Varin 1979, Ternes 1999). This paper shows that traditional Breton has a preference for V2 positioning within a VSO-type framework. Moreover, SVO seems to have become the unmarked constituent order of most independent clauses. In order to prove that, the author discusses (a) the nature of the finite verb, (b) the role of the so-called verbal particle, (c) the morpheme-initial consonant mutations, (d) rules of shifting sentence constituents, (e) Breton's Insular Celtic language origin and (f) aspects of topicalization and emphasis, particularly in comparison to Welsh.

The word order of Lower Sorbian, on the other hand, has only rarely been described in linguistic literature. Having a rich morphology, it consequently shows a relatively flexible word order. Results of fieldwork performed in the 1970's (Michałk 1970) and 2010's (Vogt 2014) indicate that, in unmarked declarative sentences, it is normally the subject which occurs in sentence-initial position whereas the verb and object do not seem to prefer any specific position. This seems to be a major distinction from Upper Sorbian which is often described to have SOV (Scholze/Breu 2006) as its dominating word order. However, as known for German, verbal frame constructions of different types occur in both languages (Bayer 2006), though in a different distribution and with less frequency in Lower Sorbian.

Having determined the word order in the traditional varieties of Breton and Lower Sorbian, an outlook will be given on potential changes of their actual word order under continuing language contact including the role of their learner varieties.

Celto-Slavica 8

The Salmon Episodes in Tochmarc Moméra and Macgnímartha Finn: the Myths that “think themselves in relation to each other”.

author44 K. Kudenko 03 September 2016 Ulster University

In his seminal study Mythologiques I: Le cru et le cuit, ‘The Raw and The Cooked,’ Claude Lévi-Strauss explained that there are universal laws that govern mythical thought and determine the system of myths. According to his striking statement, “les mythes se pensent entre eux” (“myths think themselves in relation to each other”). This means that certain myths constitute a system inasmuch as they represent different realisations of the same invariant myth. In this sense, the stories serve like mirrors to each other: one story can shed light on another story and vice versa, while the comparative analysis of both provides us with an underlying mythological pattern.

The present paper compares the famous episode of Finn mac Cumal getting his supernatural knowledge in the process of cooking a salmon and the less known episode from Tochmarc Moméra, ‘The Wooing of Moméra.’ In this tale, king Eógan experiences a wonderful transformation after putting on a cloak made of salmon’s skin by Eógan’s wife. However different the verbal setting of these two episodes might be, the comparison shows that they effectively communicate, share the same structure (a shift from ‘raw’ to ‘cooked’ and from ‘nature’ to ‘culture’ which fits into the initiatory scenario) and eventually, help to better understand each other.

Celto-Slavica 8

Syntactical Uses of Welsh yn + vn

author50 R. Scherschel 03 September 2016 Philipps-Universität Marburg

This paper explores constructions using yn + verbal noun (VN) which have so far been described as instances of `sub-predicates' or present participles (e.g. Evans 1964, MacCana 1999), or adjuncts (Borsley et al. 2007). Complementative constructions, e.g. the caffael-passive or aspectual constructions with bod are not considered here, except the complementation of perception verbs.

The constructions addressed in this paper are forms of epitaxis following MacCana 1999, complements of verbs of perception, subpredicates or depicitves, relative/attributive and appositive relations. The data for the analysis is taken from the Brut y Brenhinedd in the Llyfr Coch Hergest. The aim is to find syntactic and co(n)textual parameters with which one can distinguish the different constructions, and to show the limitations of a functional approach. I will discuss both expected and unproblematic examples and unexpected, interesting cases.

Celto-Slavica 8

Sociolinguistics of Coal-mining Areas in Wales, Lusatia and Donbass

author45 I. Stefanova 03 September 2016 Leipzig University

The paper will compare the major sociolinguistic developments of three geographically separate speech areas i.e. Celtic-speaking Wales in the UK, the Slavic-speaking Donbass region in the Eastern Ukraine and Lusatia in the East of Germany.

During the 20th century, the sociolinguistic situation in each of these regions was transformed, primarily due to industrialisation. Increasing industrial production brought about a need for new labourers, who brought different languages with them. This comparison shows how languages influence and are influenced by cultural factors such as identity, history and politics.

Celto-Slavica 8

Translations in Modern Breton

author16 A. Muradova 03 September 2016 Institute for Linguistics, Moscow

The influence of foreign languages on the written Breton is an old fact: the earliest texts in Brittany were written mostly in Latin and the influence of Latin is still important in the 17th – 20th centuries. The so-called “Brehoneg beleg”, a kind of written Breton with syntactical constructions borrowed from Latin seems to be a prototype of a new written standard of the 20th century made by the writers and translators of the Gwalarn movement. One of the aims of Gwalarn was making the Breton literature capable to absorb foreign literary traditions. That lead to changes in the written language and the creation of a new written standard.